Sunday, March 22, 2020
Value of Money and Valuing Bonds Chapter 6 55. Amortization with Equal Payments Prepare an amortization schedule for a five-year loan of $36,000. The interest rate is 9 percent per year, and the loan calls for equal annual payments. How much interest is paid in the third year? Answer: $2,108. 52 56. Amortization with Equal Principal Payments Rework Problem 55 assuming that the loan agreement calls for a principal reduction of $7,200 every year instead of equal annual payments. Answer: $1,944. 00 57. Calculating Annuity Values Bilbo Baggins wants to save money to meet three objectives.First, he would like to be able to retire 30 years from now with retirement income of $20,000 per month for 20 years, with the first payment received 30 years and 1 month from now. Second, he would like to purchase a cabin in Rivendell in 10 years at an estimated cost of $325,000. Third, after he passes on at the end of the 20 years of withdrawals, he would like to leave an inheritance of $750,000 to his nephew Frodo. We will write a custom essay sample on Bond and Percent or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He can afford to save $2,000 per month for the next 10 years. If he can earn an 11 percent EAR before he retires and an 8 percent EAR after he retires, how much will he have to save each month in years 11 through 30?Answer: $2,259. 65 58. Calculating Annuity Values After deciding to buy a new car, you can either lease the car or purchase it on a three-year loan. The car you wish to buy costs $28,000. The dealer has a special leasing arrangement where you pay $1 today and $380 per month for the next three years. If you purchase the car, you will pay it off in monthly payments over the next three years at an 8 percent APR. You believe you will be able to sell the car for $15,000 in three years. Should you buy or lease the car? What break-even resale price in three years would make you indifferent between buying and leasing?Answer: Lease, $20,161. 86 66. Calculating Annuity Payments This is a classic retirement problem. A time line will help in solving it. Your friend is celebrating her 35th birthday today and wants to start saving for her anticipated retirement at age 65. She wants to be able to withdraw $90,000 from her savings account on each birthday for 20 years following her retirement; the first withdrawal will be on her 66th birthday. Your friend intends to invest her money in the local credit union, which offers 8 percent interest per year. She wants to make equal annual payments on each birthday into the account established at the credit union for her retirement fund. a. If she starts making these deposits on her 36th birthday and continues to make deposits until she is 65 (the last deposit will be on her 65th birthday), what amount must she deposit annually to be able to make the desired withdrawals at retirement? b. Suppose your friend has just inherited a large sum of money. Rather than making equal annual payments, she has decided to make one lump sum payment on her 35th birthday to cover her retirement needs.What amount does she have to deposit? c. Suppose your friends employer will contribute $1,500 to the account every year as part of the companys profit-sharing plan. In addition, your friend expects a $25,000 distribution from a family trust fund on her 55th birthday, which she will also put into the retirement account. What amount must she deposit annually now to be able to make the desired withdrawals at retirement? Answer: a. $7,800. 21, b. $87,813. 12, c. $5,823. 77 67. Calculating the Number of Periods Your Christmas ski vacation was great, but it unfortunately ran a bit over budget.
Friday, March 6, 2020
A Band Of Brothers essays This book takes the reader on a great journey, one filled with excitement and sadness. The reader is a rifleman in Easy Company, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, U.S. Army, the greatest rifle company in the world. It all starts at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, then escalates to D-Day (Their first combat jump), and then to Hitlers Eagles Nest at Berchtesgaden. Basic Training at Fort Toccoa was the toughest BT in the Armed Forces. At Toccoa, they took in baby-faced recruits and turned them into lean, mean killing machines. Each of the 140 men and 7 officers who had come to Ft. Toccoa had either been an athlete or a hunter in high school. Toccoa was so tough that many of the OFFICERS didnt make it through there. The instructors in Georgia were very tough on these men. They knew that they had to be in supreme physical condition, or else they would never survive. To get these men in top physical condition, the drill sergeants ran the men up and down a hill that they called Currahee (Indian for We stand alone.) This hill was 3 miles up and 3 miles back. The men ran this hill at least once a day, if not twice. By the time the men shipped out of Georgia 8 weeks later, they were in the best fighting shape of their lives. On the night of June 6, 1944, the men from Easy Company loaded up into 8 c-47 carrier planes. Flying over Normandy, many planes were hit and began to go down, so men had to jump from 250 feet while going 150 miles an hour. When they actually hit the ground, many of the men could not find their gear and had to sometimes make do with just a field knife. As the men landed, (they were scattered about 5 miles apart, as the planes had been blown off course by the Anti-Aircraft fire.) they tried to group together in bands and make their way to the rallying point. Many men were killed, because they would accidentally walk right into a German ma ...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Film Schindler's List - Movie Review Example chindler' Lit i not jut a biography of Okar chindler, but it i the tory of how good can overcome evil and how charity can overcome greed. (Paldiel, 2007) chindler' Lit begin with the early life of Okar chindler. The novel decribe hi early family life in the Autro-Hungarian Empire, and hi adolecence in the newly created tate of Czecholovakia. It tell of hi relationhip with hi father, and how hi father left hi mother. Hi mother i alo decribed in great detail. Like many German in the outh, he wa a devout Catholic. he i decribed a being very troubled that her on would take after her etranged huband with hi negligence of Catholicim. Okar never forgave Han, hi father, for hi abandonment of hi mother , which i ironic conidering that Okar would do the ame with hi wife Emilie. In fact Han and Okar chindler' live would become o much in parallel that the novel decribe their relationhip a "that of brother eparated by the accident of paternity." Okar' relationhip with Emilie i alo decribed in detail a i their marriage. The heart of the novel begin in October 1939 when Okar chindler come to the Polih city of Cracow. It ha been ix week ince the Ger man' took the city, and chindler ee great opportunity a any entrepreneur would. For chindler, Cracow repreent a place of unlimited poibilitie becaue of the current economic diorder and cheap labor. Upon hi arrival in Cracow he meet Itzak tern, a Jewih bookkeeper. chindler i very impreed with tern becaue of hi buine prowe and hi connection in the buine community. oon chindler and tern are on their way to the creation of a factory that would run on Jewih labor. Around thi time, the perecution of the Jew of Poland begin with their forced relocation into ghettoe. Thi turn out to be timely for chindler a now he i able to get very cheap labor. (Fench, 1995) The next few year would go well for chindler and hi factory for they turned a great profit. In fact he made o much money that he i quoted a aying, "I've made more money than I could poibly pend in a lifetime." Hi worker were alo very happy. Thi i becaue "chindler' Jew" were treated a human a oppoed to being treated a animal. For them, working in chindler' factory wa an ecape from the ghetto and from much German cruelty. They loved chindler o much that hi factory became known a a haven throughout the Jewih community. However, thing began to go our for chindler, when the German ordered the liquidation of the ghettoe. oon all of the Jew in the Cracow ghetto were relocated to the Plazow labor camp. By thi time chindler had grown o affectionate toward hi Jewih worker that he refued to hire Pole, and intead ought of a way to keep uing the Jew that he had grown o accutomed to. A the Cracow Jew were relocated to the Plazow labor camp, Okar chindler came into direct dealing with the camp' dir ector, Amon Goeth. He did not like Amon, but he tried to get in on hi bet ide in order to keep uing hi Jew in hi factory. Amon agreed to let chindler ue them, and thu aving hi Jew from ome of the harhne of the Plazow labor camp. A the war began to go badly for the German, they decided to accelerate their "final olution" by ending the Jew to more initer concentration camp uch a Auchwitz. Thi i when Okar chindler finally come to the realization that he had the power to help hi people. (Yule, 1997) The now enlightened chindler decide to ue hi entire fortune to
Monday, February 3, 2020
Pragmatism and Feminist Epistemology - Essay Example In ordinary terms, pragmatism is known as a method of putting aside an ideal temporarily, to work towards achieving a more simple and achievable goal. It has greatly helped to clarify intractable metaphysical and epistemological disputes (McDermid, "Pragmatism," par.14). The simplest way of solving a dispute has been put forward by suggesting that arguing metaphysicians should ask themselves if any solid practical difference will be made as a result of their argument being proved right. If no such difference is made, practically there should be no disagreement and hence, no problem. Theories and models are gauged solely on their effects and benefits and not on ancestral data or facts. Dewey emphasized that the use of a theory is judged by its problem-solving power and not by qualitative standards for example, the consolation and subjective comfort it gives (McDermid, "Pragmatism," par. 16). It must be used if it's proven reliable over the times but to the extent till which it is givi ng practical solutions. The idea is that eventually, a theory must be replaced by another theory which works better for that time. In short, it emphasizes that what might be true at one point in time or in one context may differ if judged at a different point in time or in a context different to the first. James mentioned in his lecture that he gave in 1946 that it is astounding when one sees how many philosophical clashes and disputes fall into insignificance when they are put to the test of extracting a concrete consequence out of it ("What Pragmatism means," par.9). Feminist epistemology and its philosophy analyses the way in which the difference in gender does and ought to influence our understandings of knowledge, the knowing subject and practices of inquiry and justification (Anderson, "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science," par.1). It is a loosely organized approach to epistemology rather than being a significantly different theory. There is emphasis on the epistemic significance of gender and the use of it as a separate analytical category in debates, criticisms and reconstructions of epistemic practices, trends and ideals (Janack, "Feminist Epistemology," par.1). The feminist approach has its sources from various sections of thoughts including feminist science studies, naturalistic epistemologies, Marxist feminism, object-relations theory, development psychology and postmodernism etcetera. It generally looks at ways in which dominant conceptions through various platforms, disadvantages women and other subordinate groups systematically. It then works towards reforming such trends to help the aggrieved groups. Feminist philosophers investigate how gender situates knowing subjects; they have divided this quest into 3 categories: Feminist stand-point theory, feminist postmodernism and feminist empiricism (Anderson, "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science," par.1). Some feminists regard development psychology and object-relations theory to be troublesome as it assumes some specific commonalities in child-rearing that goes beyond the class and race differences. Also the claim that woman tend to reason differently than men, regardless of th e source of that difference, is thought to be wrong and politically
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Facebook Marketing Report James Byrne Ã Ã Task 1: Facebook Consumer Behaviour Introduction Consumer Behaviour has been described as the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas ir experiences in order to satisfy needs (Solomon et. al., 2010). It is increasingly recognised that consumption is a process not just a purchase event. This is especially evident when examining behaviour on social media platforms, in this case Facebook. Traditional models of consumer behaviour do not directly apply to this online environment. There is no inherent monetary purchase decision as Facebook provides it user end services seemingly for free. Founded in 2004, Facebook is currently the biggest social networking service based on global reach and total active users. Worldwide, there are over 1.79 billion monthly active Facebook users (Facebook MAUs) which is a 16 percent increase year over year. (Source: Facebook as of 02/11/16). This is despite the hyperchoice available to consumers in regards to social media platforms which i nclude Instagram, YouTube, Google Plus and many others. Such a plethora of platforms present the consumer with a choice not based on cost but on factors such as time, user experience and connectedness. This paper will examine the success of Facebook both from a users perspective and commercially and examine the challanges facing the platform going forward. For the purposes of this study a user diary was kept over 17 days where activity of particular interest was monitored and recorded -see Appendix at end of document. Behavioural patterns across different users are detected and discussed. Motives for Joining and Using Facebook Motivation can be described as the processes that encourage behaviour (Solomon et. al., 2010). Facebook has very successfully positioned itself as both a communication channel and an informational tool between individuals, brands and news outlets. Consumers use Facebook to fulfil a number of primary needs socialising, entertainment, self-status seeking, and information (Park et al, 2010). Some examples of can be seen in this study; Socialising The user initiated the communication through a public post of photos that indicated they were on holiday in Australia. A friend subsequently enquired How was the trip? and the response was I did it!! Absolutely sensational Im still buzzing Ã °Ã ¸Ã¢â ¢Ã â Miss your face, hows home?. This conversation illustrates the role Facebook plays in reinforcing personal relationships. This post also displays self-status seeking as such a foreign holiday is highly desirable and portrays a certain lifestyle. Entertainment Many humours videos and images are posted to Facebook. This one features potential trying to steal a bike which is tethered to a fence and subsequently falling off. Comments included: That sXXX was funny. They can sue his ass though for personal injury. Thats what they get for stealing lol Homeboys got wreeecked Users frequently shares these posts with their friends. This action provides a indication of the users personality. Self-status seeking This seemingly humours post also fufills the function of portraying a desirable possession. Convertible cars tend to be more expensive than hard tops and indicate a particular type of lifestyle. That is message is linked to possessions is underlined by one self aware comment I have a vw polo and brought a 10ft tree home in it today . who needs a convertible The post also fulfils the need for uniqueness to stand out from the herd. It emphasises the individual and their (relatively) unique qualities (Solomon et al, 2010). Information As well as using Facebook to access organisational news sources users can request information to queries from their friends. This post received 9 comments with suggestions. Word of mouth whether initiated or requested is an important component in the platforms user experience. Individuals often trust the opinions of their peers more than commercial communications such as advertising. Opinion seekers thus may regard recommendations by peers and associates as credible and reliable thereby increasing the chance the will influence purchase decisions (Shu-Chuan Yoojung, 2011). In their proposed model, tie strength, homophily, trust and two types of interpersonal influence, normative and informational, are proposed as the main influencing components of electronic word of mouth. GÃ ¼lnar et al, 2010 categorised the motivations for using of photo/video sharing websites such as Facebook, under seven headings. In order of importance they are: narcissism and self expression, media drenching and performance, passing time, information seeking, personal status, relationship maintenance, and entertainment. Here are some examples of those that differ from Parks earlier classifications. Self Expression This post displays remembrance, history, gratitude, patriotism and politics. It conveys a lot of information about the users beliefs and values. Interesting to note the inclusion of a Pearl Harbour hashtag, a feature that is more commonplace on twitter than Facebook. not commonplace on Facebook. Posts displaying narcissism might include those promoted by lifestyle bloggers whether they operate on the worlds of fashion, fitness or health. The concept of media drenching refers to a users gratification through the frequent posting of images. Here is such an example where 86 photos of a holiday in Vancover are posted. Narcissism ÃâÃ Reinforcement of personal status and relationship maintenance can be seen in the following post. The drivers outlined by GÃ ¼lnar et al, 2010 overlook the factors that influence avoidance of social media and the approach-avoidance conflict inherent in some users attitudes due to a range of factors including fake news, perceived time wasting and privacy issues. Reinforcement of personal status and relationship maintenance The user is celebrating his recent engagement with his online community. Such a noteworthy personal event is recognised by the number of likes (170) and comments (32) all of which were in the form of congratulations; Sooo happy for you!!!!!! Shes one in a million xxx So thrilled for you both. Fab piccie! Xx Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ ° Just fantastic superb news! Ã °Ã ¸Ã¢â¬ËÃ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã Ã »Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã ©Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ °Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã¢â¬ ° congratulations you troopers xxxxxÃ °Ã ¸Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã °Ã ¸Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã °Ã ¸Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¢ The use of emojis helps convey the positive reinforcement. Thus the personal relationships both with his fiancÃ ©e and broader peer group were strengthened. Entertainment This post received 26 likes and 1 comment Guys !!! Yall are absolutely beaut. Wish I couldve been a part of this. Facebook is both used as a vehicle to communicate and portray a users lifestyle and Virtual Identities The self-concept refers to an individuals perception of themselves (Solomon et al, 2010). High self esteem indicates a positive self concept. Marketing communications can sometimes tap into the variance between an individuals actual self (existing state) and ideal self (aspirational self). Brands tend to focus on the positive aspects of the ideal self rather than the negative connotations of the actual self. For example a gym posting on Facebook in December might tend to focus on the potential of getting in shape in the new year rather than avoiding eating less over the Christmas period. An extreme example of the reverse was the response to this ad by Protein World last year where it was perceived as focusing on peoples inadequacies. Debate raged whether portrayal of such imagery as the ultimate definition of attractiveness in marketing communications presented negative body image connotations to the audience particularly younger females. The controversial generated nearly 400 complaints to the UK ad watchdog that it objectified women and was socially irresponsible. Such an ideal of beauty can cause conflict if the viewer does not share these characteristics (Solomon et al, 1990). Such marketing communications may go some way to explain why consumers have become increasingly more wary of marketing communications (Bousch, Friestad Rose, 1994). However such ideals of beauty evolve. In the early part of the twentieth century it was fashionable to be pale skinned as it denoted one who spent time indoors ie. Not involved with manual labour. However as air travel and package holidays expanded in the 1960s a summer tan became fashionable as it implied wealth and status thus fulfilling hedonic needs. Tactics understanding these western cultural norms can be seen nowadays online in holiday postings by travel agents and social bloggers. Generally direct ostentatious displays of wealth or conspicuous consumption are avoided on social media, particularly during the recent recession in many western countries. Rather such status is implied through the postings or experiences such as a foreign holiday or dinner at an exclusive restaurant. This contrasts somewhat with the theory proposed by Veblen, 1899 who proposed that some consumers namely a leisure class consciously consume visibly in order to inspire envy in others. Possessions continually aid the concept of self through symbolism (Levy 1959). Consumer behaviour can further be examined in the concept of the extended self whereby the buying and using of objects contribute towards our individual identities. The extended self comprises individual characteristics such as appearance, ideas and experiences plus external factors including persons, places and objects that form part of existence (Belk, 1987). The extended self encompasses 4 levels: Individual Family Community The posts show pride, association and tribe identity based on common geographic association. The National Geographic story received national coverage. Comments include: Some county for one county! Seen that sure best place to live Ã °Ã ¸Ã¢â¬ËÃ I say it time and time again. We are so lucky to live here. we already knew this though right?! The most beautiful and the most fun! Cannot wait to go back. Its going to be epic! Group The act of consumption is varied and depends on the product or service in question (Holt, 1995). Consumption particularly in group environments encompasses four interrelated facets; experiencing, integrating, playing, and classifying. Integration, the act of integrating objects of consumption in best way to manage self identity echoes Belks extended self concept. Examples of such consumption in Facebook can be seen in posts at sporting and other events. In many posts such as this the user is not featured in the image, rather the event itself is the subject. The experience is the essence of the consumption. Other examples of this are music festivals and holidays. Displays of experiences consumption can reinforce self identity derives by hedonic motives. Consumers might also avail of products and services for socio-cultural reasons (Solomon et al, 2010). This post by a GAA club, in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal was for a fund raising draw in which the first prize is a house. The promotion garnered national media attention while the draw pages generated 631 likes by mid December. The post is aspirational showing the prize but not the entry cost so as to reduce approach-avoidance conflict. The post taps into community pride and local identity. Reference groups such as this can have a significant effect upon its members evaluations, aspirations and behaviour (Park Lessing, 1977). Online communications have accelerated the spread and impact of word of mouth communication, especially when marketing communications are integrated through an omnichannel approach. Shares and likes boost visibility among other users. Behaviours in virtual communities have been found to differ from open forums (Kling Courtright 2003). Approach-avoidance conflict occurs where individuals desire a product or service while at the same time appreciating the real or perceived negative consequences. One example of a user expressing a case in point is illustrated here. The abstention from chocolate (presumably for a longer objective goal) is causing inner turmoil. An illustrative conservation with a friend ensues: Friend: Ah its Christmas Poster Im going to explode if I so much as look at another box of celebrations Friend: just enjoy u will deflate in January Poster: Naw, seriouslyI dont even like chocolate. Im a crisps gal me but theres chocolate everywhere, just begging to be eaten. This struggle is real haha! It could be argued that the initial Facebook post facilities biological / psychological needs in that tension is reduced by the cause being shared with colleagues. The state of unpleasantness is reduced through application for drive theory. Facebook posts and shares can be seen as a conspicuous form of self-presentation. Consumers create and manage their online identities by associating themselves with signs, symbols, material objects and places (Schau Gilly, 2003). This post shows an idealised view of homelife. Each photo is carefully framed to show specific elements. Seasonality is explicit in the Christmas tree. The users conveys their media consumption through the HD television. The tone is one of contentment and fulfilment. Self-presentation as conceptualised here builds on Goffmans (1959) theories of identity and social performance. His thesis was that identity is a built through a conscious effort to project specific presentation norms. Consumers can inhabit various parallel identities online. For example a man can be a son, father, husband, sportsman, professional and friend. Social media activity may focus on one or more of any of these aspects of his life and identity. For example in this post the man poses as both a partner and a father in another idyllic Christmas scene. Families are the bedrock consumer group for many brands. They facilitate collective decision-making whereby products and services are decided on jointly and brand communicators must take into account the roles and objectives of each of the groups members. Children are increasingly involved in such decision making especially in the technological sphere. On the other hand parents may limit childrens access to online sites and social media to protect them from unsuitable content and users. Taking self-presentation a step further some celebrities have been accused of photoshopping images thereby creating a fantasy self portrayed as reality to their followers, Such imagery can suggest unattainable goals and increasing hedonic satisfaction among this elevated grouping. Symbolic interactionism as defined by Mead (1934) focuses on the roles that object acting as symbols play in self-identity. For example in the following post the concert ticket acts as a metaphor for the users self-perceived identity through lifestyle and interests. The ticket itself is to an old concert and is nominally worthless but is obviously of perceived value to the user. Consumption helps to define the individual or extended self (Belk, 1988). In the past consumers may have defined themselves through material possessions such as a record collection. Nowadays their self identity could be intrinsically linked to abstract factors such as quantity of Facebook friends or number of virtual birthday wishes. In the past consumers may have defined themselves through material possessions such as a record collection. Nowadays their self identity could be intrinsically linked to abstract factors such as quantity of Facebook friends or number of virtual birthday wishes. Consumers tend to use products and services that compliment their actual and ideal identities (Clairborne Stringy, 1990) Needs and Goals Maslows (1970) hierarchy of needs categorises five needs ranging from basic psychological needs, through safety, belongingness, ego needs to self-actualisation at the highest level. Facebook generally fulfils elements of the top three needs. Here is an example of belongingness need fulfilment from this studies diary. Belonginess encompasses love, friendship and acceptance. AÃâÃ tactic of Facebooks is to acknowledge friendship overtly by providing an album of shared experiences. Text on 1m 4 sec Friendversary video: Hey A B. Four years ago today You became friends on Facebook Nice! Photo album On Cover: Youve Shared All of This Together. By A B. You seem to like each other a lot. 452 times to be exact. Close photo album And while there are billions of friendships.. theres only one like yours Ã°Å¸Ëâ° Thats awesome! From all of us at Facebook (logo included). The felling is home spun. Facebook positions itself as a central ingredient in the friendship a facilitator and admiring observer celebrating mutual co-creation. Scale and individuality are both themes. Vinyl record player and photo album are nostalgic items physical cues for a digital relationship. Examples of ego need posts include images of a new car inferring status or a graduation scene inferring accomplishment. Self-actualisation is conveyed through the consumption of enriching experiences such as a holiday or concert. Maslows hierarchy of needs is limited to rational behaviour and is culturally specific (Solomon et. al, 2010). Consumers desire sometimes is in conflict with rationality. Dangerous pursuits and unhealthy products can be seen as attractive on one level yet not on another. This video posted by online publisher Lad Bible plays on that theme. ItÃâÃ was created by French ad agency BETC to drive alcoholism awareness and has been extremely successful generating 4.8 million views and 2.5k comments. In every frame across a wide range of situations and environments the female subject is accompanied by some form of alcoholic drink. However comments mixed with many seeing the imagery as promoting an inspirational lifestyle. Though it created a conversation, irrationality in consumer decision making muddies the debate. This post emphasises danger and is targeted at the extreme sports enthusiast. 5. Concerns and Issues with Facebook Fake News Following criticism of its role in the recent US election, Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg maintained that Facebook is not a media company. (Ingram, 2016). The debate over whether social platforms should control and regulate the content hosted on their platforms has increased. The issue for Facebook is whether fake news and other dubious content affects its credibility among consumers. Only 4% of web-using adults in the US have a lot of trust in the information available to them on social media (Mitchell, 2016). They are much more cautious about content received through this medium than that received from local news organisations (22%), national news organisations (18%) and family and friends (14%). This is despite the growth in access to news online which has risen to 81% from just 12% in 1996. 62% of adults now access news through social media a figure that rises to 84% for 18 to 29-year-olds. Further questions have been raised about the potential of such platforms to fac ilitate deception, defamation and bogus profiles (Light and McGrath, 2010). The low trust invested in the information received from family and friends contrast with studies that indicate that consumers rely on such more than advertising (Arndt, 1967) One example captured during research was a post from FOX8, a news station in North Carolina. Here is the text of the video commentary: This is what happens when a fake news story goes viral. A Salisbury man is now in jail and facing some serious charge for firing a rifle inside a D.C. restaurant called Comet Ping Pong. Edgar Welch told police he was self-investigating an online conspiracy that the restaurant was tied to a child abuse ring. Welch had his first appearance in court today. This illustrates a disconnect between so-called traditional and social media whereby newspapers and TV stations resent the perceived lack of regulation applied to social platforms in regards to authenticity and accountability. Any decline in trust in and involvement with online content is of primary concern both to Facebook and also advertisers on the platform. Consumers are increasingly media literate and sceptical of commercial communications tactics (Bousch, Friestad Rose, 1994). Consumers use Facebook to communicate directly with brands. Complaints and comments need to be rapidly responded to and resolved to ensure a positive online consumer experience and maintain brand legitimacy. A Filter Bubble creating an Echo Chamber Facebook as with other social media platforms incorporates algorithms, based on user profiling through recording of online behavioural patterns, to define which updates are most relevant for them and to be display them on their pages. Thus users become more exposed to posts that align with and reinforce their established interests and opinions. One extreme example references the recent Brexit vote in the UK. This remain voter could not find any evidence of support for the leave campaign on his news feed on Facebook. A user in the study for this paper was similarly frustrated with receiving filtered posts from third parties. Only seeing posts that you agree with might suggest that everyone agrees with you which is commonly a distortion of the world view. Such selective exposure increases the likelihood of confirmation bias (Bessi, 2016). It could also polarise opinion through reinforcing pre-existing beliefs and increase antagonism when those that hold a differing view are encountered either in the on or offline environments. Influence on Children Although social media and online in general provides opportunities for learning and interaction there are fears of the potential threat of addiction, early sexualisation, bullying and a sedentary lifestyle have on impressionable young people, Despite Facebook having a rule preventing children under the age of 13 from opening an account, between 23% and 34% of kids under that age have Facebook accounts (Aiken, 2016). A recent report by UK telecoms regulate Ofcom found that social media is central for both tweens and teens. Some 23% of 8-11s and 72% of 12-15s have a profile. Children are messaging, sharing and liking throughout the day, including during school hours and late into the evening, with 9% of 11-15s communicating via social media at 10pm. Both 8-11s (43%) and 12-15s (52%) consider Facebook their main social media outlet. Another recent survey found that three-quarters of UK children spend less time outdoors than prison inmates (Carrington, 2016). The poll also found children spent twice as long playing on screens as playing outside. 74% of 5-12 year olds spent less than 60 minutes playing outside each day. Spam and other Unsolicited Posts Here is an example of a poor customer experience leading to a complaint to the company in question regarding their frequent unwanted invitations. Such features on news feed can be seen as intrusion and negate positive interactions. Also of concern is the trend towards links with ambiguous headlines (click bait) and trolling comments (keyboard warriors) and disclosure of private details (Ng, 2016). 6. Conclusions and Opportunities for Further Research The motivations for joining and using Facebook are wide and varied encompassing individual and gold needs and goals. Central to its appeal is the facility to develop and shape different virtual identities to various peer groups. However the attractiveness of the platform could be stifled be perceived weaknesses and barrier in the online user experience. This study is limited as some Facebook behaviour as some functionality behaviours cannot be observed through news feed. Behaviours of consumers in the context of user-generated content has been categorised as posting, lurking, and networking (Morrison et al, 2013). Behaviours omitted from this study include closed group conversations, direct messaging either to other users or organisations and viewing without follow up action. This could be research through surveys and diaries of a robust sample size. There is also the opportunity to compare consumer behaviour on Facebook versus other social media networks. Brands and organisations must recognise the evolving environment to take full advantage of this opportunity to communicate to and with their consumer bases. Task 2: Facebook Revenue Model Introduction Facebook has a market capitalisation of $342.75 billion. It employees over fifteen thousand people. Marketers are employing the Facebook platform because of
Saturday, January 18, 2020
A large part of those extracts on Romantic imagination Ã¢â¬â which are contained in the fascicule on pages D64 and D65 Ã¢â¬â are strictly related to an ancient theory about Art and RealityÃ¢â¬â¢s imitation, the Theory of Forms concieved by a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician Plato Ã¢â¬â in Greek: Ã Ã »Ã ¬ÃâÃâ°Ã ½, PlÃ ¡tÃ n, Ã¢â¬Å"broadÃ¢â¬ ; from 424/423 BC to 348/347 BC. The Theory of Forms Ã¢â¬â in Greek: Ã¡ ¼ °Ã ´Ã Ã ±Ã ¹ Ã¢â¬â typically refers to the belief expressed by Socrates in some of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogues, that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an image or copy of the real world. Socrates spoke of forms in formulating a solution to the problem of universals. The forms, according to Socrates, are roughly speaking archetypes or abstract representations of the many types of things, and properties we feel and see around us, that can only be perceived by reason Ã¢â¬â in Greek: Ã »Ã ¿Ã ³Ã ¹Ã ºÃ ® Ã¢â¬â that is, they are universals. In other words, Socrates sometimes seems to recognise two worlds: the Apparent world, which constantly changes, and an unchanging and unseen world of forms, which may be a cause of what is apparent. This theory is proposed in different ways in BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s, ColeridgeÃ¢â¬â¢s ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s extracts. The former says that Ã¢â¬Å"This world of Imagination is the world of EternityÃ¢â¬ (A Vision of the Last Judgement, 1810) a place which resembles to a sort of otherworldly realm where Ã¢â¬Å"Exist [Ã¢â¬ ¦] the Permanent Realities of Every Thing (the Form) which we see reflected in this Vegetable Glass of Nature (the Apparent world)Ã¢â¬ . A similar thing is exposed by Samuel Coleridge an english romantic poet who divides Imagination in Primary and Secondary. The former is Ã¢â¬Å"the living Power and prime Agent of all human Perception, and as a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the infiniteÃ¢â¬ , the latter is an echo of the former who Ã¢â¬Å"diss olves, diffuses, dissipates, in order to re-createÃ¢â¬ (Biographia Literaria, 1817) a thing which is totally different from Fancy. Even in Shelley the poetry is presented as Ã¢â¬Å"something of divine [Ã¢â¬ ¦] not like reasoningÃ¢â¬ (A Defence of Poetry, 1821) which beholds as the poet, the present, the past, and the future. In Keats and Wordsworth the poetry became Ã¢â¬Å"the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings [originating] from emotion recollected in tranquillityÃ¢â¬ (Preface to Lyrical Ballads) and the poet Ã¢â¬Å"the most unpoetical of any thing in existence; because he has no IdentityÃ¢â¬ (A Letter to Richard Woodhouse, October 27th 1818). So Art is imitation, a feature of both of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s theories. In the Republic, Plato says that art imitates the objects and events of ordinary life. In other words, a work of art is a copy of a copy of a Form. It is even more of an illusion than is ordinary experience. On this theory, works of art are at best entertainment, and at worst a delusion. This theory actually appears in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s short early dialogue, the Ion. Socrates is questioning a poet named Ion, who recites HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry brilliantly but is no good at reciting anything else. Socrates is puzzled by this; it seems to him that if Ion has an art, or skill, of reciting poetry he should be able to apply his skilled knowledge to other poets as well. He concludes that Ion doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really possess skilled knowledge. Rather, when he recites Homer, he must be inspired by a god. The Ion drips with sarcasm. Plato didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take the Ã¢â¬Å"art by divine inspirationÃ¢â¬ theory very seriously. But many ancient, medieval, and modern artists and aestheticians have found it irresistible.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Jane Austen was extremely modest about her genius, describing her work to her work to her nephew Edward asÃ Ã¢â¬Å"That little but (two inches wide) of ivory in which I work with so fine a brush as produces little effect after much labour.Ã¢â¬ Although the world of her novel Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ is confined to a small section of society comprising of country-gentry and lesser aristocracy of England in the opening of the 19th century, the novel itself shows page by page how interesting life could be, how fascinating lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s twists and turns are, how significant the trivialities are to those concerned. The range of AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novel is limited by her own circumstances, her own sex, and her position in the society. But the little world she writes about, she knows inside out. She fills her little world so artfully that when we are in it we do not long for anything else and we feel its fullness as well. She practiced what she preached. Ã¢â¬Å"There are four families in a country villageÃ¢â¬ is the very thing to work on. She sticks to what she knows and is refusing to include in her novel what does not properly belong to village life; she is an artist. Austen has an acute interest in personalities, her field is the human heart. Therefore, although she writes in the years of war between England and France while Napoleon was changing the map of Europe, in her novel we find not mention of Ã¢â¬Å"Britain at war.Ã¢â¬ In Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ soldiers like Wickham, come to Meryton to provide, in a sense, amusement for the girls. Austen thus does not impose anything harsh or unnecessary on her novel; this alludes to the artistic unity of her creation. She consciously limits herself and does not write anything beyond her experience. It may well be mentioned here that in Ã¢â¬Å"A Room OneÃ¢â¬â¢s OwnÃ¢â¬ Virginia Woolf pays a rich tribute to Austen by mentioning that novels like Ã¢â¬Å"War and PeaceÃ¢â¬ could never be written by any female novelist, but certainly no Tolstoy could ever write the novels of Jane Austen. Austen deliberately and wisely limits herself to a few families and a limited number of characters in Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ . Her characters live in comfort in country houses; their lives consist of holding balls, attending parties, visiting each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s house and thus amusing themselves. In that society even a small event is given a higher importance. Thereby a ball at the Bingleys or at the Lucases is eagerly anticipated and minutely analyzed. Austen chooses her characters from very ordinary life. Her characters range from the proud aristocrat Darcy to the dull-witted Mrs. Bennet, from the good-natured Jane to the hypocritical Miss Bingley. The men-folks in her novel do not in fact do nay work whereas the young girls are always in pursuit of good husbands. The girls have somehow managed to turn themselves into husband hunting butterflies. Distant Pembrly, Netherfield and Rosings are the upper limit, whereas Sir W Lucas and Lady Catherine Debourgh are highest in rank, the still higher estates and greater aristocracy are not mentioned in the novel, since they little effect Meryton and Derbyshire. The way Austen treats her characters is satiric. Her views of life are therefore always satiric; the passionate and tragic aspects of human life are somehow discarded. Only such characters are chosen that could be satirically treated. This satiric vision of life is a limitation on AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s part. Critics sometimes mention that Austen Ã¢â¬Å"Banished nine-tenth of life, and gave us people who never work, or fight or die, or starve or go crazy.Ã¢â¬ In the view of that above-mentioned statement we find that people in Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ engage themselves in doing nothing. Mr. Darcy apparently seems to have some work to do when he is at Pemberly, the work he does there is obviously connected with his estate. Mr. Gardiner revels in fishing only. Mr. Bennet, as we are told, takes one of his farms but only emerges from his library when he needs to settle some family affairs. Mr. HurstÃ¢â¬â¢s motto of life is Ã¢â¬Å"High living and little thinking.Ã¢â¬ Reading has a place in family entertainment and since all the novels are heard at family gatherings, the writers take care to fill up pages fit for family consumption. In fact, AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of menÃ¢â¬â¢s ways limited, but she knew how to useÃ her limitation. In Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ men come and go, and sit and chat when in front of the ladies; Austen does not pursue them into their personal world. We may see Fitz William Darcy and Bingley set off in a carriage but what they discuss is never reported if no woman is present. Despite AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to present the many facets of menÃ¢â¬â¢s life, she is successful in providing an illuminating insight into some of the most significant characters like that of Darcy and Bingley. For instance, DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s transmigration from a proud and snob person to a compassionate and reliable one is shown with perfect dexterity. In this novel Austen does want to compete with students of political economics, or social problems. The life and its complications that she depicts are just as what she experienced as a woman. Quite naturally her themes in this novel center the complex role of money and love in marriage. In doing so she even consciously avoids any discussion on philosophical or social issues. A simple plot concerning a few number of people is woven in this novel. That Austen has no wish to exceed the limitation of her own is quite evident when we find that urban life is excluded from the novel only because she had not much experience of it. It is mentioned casually during JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s visit to London. We have also observed that no black-hearted villain ever makes an appearance in AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s pages. The greatest villainy that ever occurs in Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ is the occasional elopement of Lydia with Wickham. Wickham indeed lacks all those negative traits of character which could have made him a person of shade like that of Alec in HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Tess of the DÃ¢â¬â¢urbervillesÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, WickhamÃ¢â¬â¢s possibility to be the only villain in Ã¢â¬Å"Pride and PrejudiceÃ¢â¬ ends there. Still it is no shallowness or lack of insight on AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s part, which leads her to restrict the exploration of human nature to the apparent social level. Austen gives us in her novel an artistic unity in which nothing is forced, nothing is excessive. A simple plot proceeds bit by bit to the only conclusion possible. Her characters act and speak in a very familiar way as we can imagine. The characters are so true to nature and so well-balanced against constructing types that as they talk along the story we begin toÃ think that it would not matter if there were no plot. The central figures whose union we desire grow upon us as their mistakes and recoveries reveal the fineness of their spirit. Therefore, in AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s world there is a welcome for the sensitive reader who will accept it as it is and will not cry out for, in the words of one critic Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The moon of passionate embraces or the lightning of sword.Ã¢â¬